Succinic acid

A summary of the most common chemical descriptors (InChI Key and SMILES codes) for Succinic acid are summarized together with 3D and 2D structures and relevant physico-chemical properties.

What is the Succinic acid?

The molecule Succinic acid presents a molecular formula of C4H6O4 and its IUPAC name is butanedioic acid.

Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula (CH2CO2H)2. It occurs naturally in amber. Succinic acid is a white, crystalline solid with a mild acidic odor. It is soluble in water and insoluble in organic solvents..

Succinic acid is used as a food additive, as a raw material for the chemical industry, and in medicine. It is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is a central metabolic pathway in all aerobic organisms..

Succinic acid is produced industrially by the catalytic oxidation of 1,4-butanediol or by the hydrogenation of maleic acid. It can also be obtained from amber by fractional distillation..

Succinic acid is used as a food additive. It is added to food as an acidulant, preservative, and flavor enhancer. It is also used in the manufacture of alginates, resins, and plasticizers..

Succinic acid is used in medicine. It is used as an antifungal agent and as a treatment for some types of liver disease. It is also being studied as a treatment for Huntington's disease and other neurological disorders..

3D structure

Cartesian coordinates

Geometry of Succinic acid in x, y and z coordinates (Å units) to copy/paste elsewhere. Generated with Open Babel software.

2D drawing


Succinic acid KDYFGRWQOYBRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N chemical compound 2D structure molecule svg
Succinic acid


Molecule descriptors

IUPAC namebutanedioic acid
InChI codeInChI=1S/C4H6O4/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H2,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)

Other names (synonyms)

IUPAC nomenclature provides a standardized method for naming chemical compounds. Although this system is widely used in chemistry, many chemical compounds have also other names commonly used in different contexts. These synonyms can come from a variety of sources and are used for a variety of purposes.

One common source of synonyms for chemical compounds is the common or trivial names, assigned on the basis of appearance, properties, or origin of the molecule.

Another source of synonyms are historical or obsolete names employed in the past, however replaced nowadays by more modern or standardized names.

In addition to common and historical names, chemical compounds may also have synonyms that are specific to a particular field or industry.

  • 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylate
  • 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid
  • 1,4-Butandioic Acid
  • 1,4-Butanedioate
  • 1,4-Butanedioic acid
  • 110-15-6
  • 1cze
  • 26776-24-9
  • 37E8FFFB-70DA-4399-B724-476BD8715EF0
  • 4lh2
  • A 12084
  • A14596
  • AB01332192-02
  • AB6MNQ6J6L
  • AI3-06297
  • Acid of amber
  • Acidum succinicum
  • Amber acid
  • Ammonium succinate
  • Asuccin
  • BBL002473
  • BDBM26121
  • BP-21128
  • BRN 1754069
  • Bernsteinsaeure
  • Bernsteinsaure
  • Butandisaeure
  • Butane diacid
  • Butanedioic acid (9CI)
  • Butanedioic acid diammonium salt
  • Butanedioic acid, homopolymer
  • Butanedioic acid?
  • Butanedionic acid
  • C00042
  • C4-beta-polymorph
  • CCG-266069
  • CS-0008946
  • D85169
  • DB00139
  • DSSTox_CID_3602
  • DSSTox_GSID_23602
  • DSSTox_RID_77102
  • Dihydrofumarate
  • Dihydrofumaric acid
  • E363
  • EC 203-740-4
  • Ethanedicarboxylic acid
  • Ethylene dicarboxylic acid
  • Ethylene succinic acid
  • F2191-0239
  • FEMA NO. 4719
  • FT-0652509
  • FT-0773657
  • GTPL3637
  • HMS3885O04
  • HSDB 791
  • HY-N0420
  • J-002386
  • Katasuccin
  • Kyselina jantarova
  • LMFA01170043
  • LS40373
  • MFCD00002789
  • N1941
  • NCGC00159372-02
  • NCGC00159372-03
  • NCGC00159372-04
  • NCGC00159372-05
  • NCGC00159372-06
  • NCGC00257092-01
  • NCGC00259467-01
  • NSC 106449
  • NSC-106449
  • NSC-25949
  • NSC106449
  • NSC25949
  • Nat.Succinic Acid
  • Q213050
  • S0100
  • SIN
  • SR-01000944556
  • SR-01000944556-2
  • STK387105
  • STR02803
  • Sal succini
  • Salt of amber
  • Spirit of amber
  • Substrate analogue, 11
  • Succinellite
  • Succinic Acid (SA)
  • Succinic Acide,(S)
  • Succinic acid
  • Succinic acid (8CI)
  • Succinic acid (Butanedioic acid)
  • Succinic acid, 6
  • Succinic acid, FCC
  • Succinic acid, natural
  • Succinicate
  • Succinicum acidum
  • WLN: QV2VQ
  • Wormwood
  • Wormwood acid
  • Z57127453
  • acide butanedioique
  • acide succinique
  • bmse000183
  • bmse000968
  • butanedioic acid
  • ethylenesuccinic acid
  • s3791
  • sodium succinate (anhydrous)
  • suc
  • succ
  • succinate, 9
  • succinic acid
  • succinic-acid

Reference codes for other databases

There exist several different chemical codes commonly used in orded to identify molecules:
  • ZINC895030
  • CAS-110-15-6
  • AKOS000118899
  • DTXSID6023602
  • CHEMBL576
  • CHEBI:15741
  • Tox21_111612
  • Tox21_201918
  • Tox21_303247
  • Tox21_111612_1
  • EINECS 203-740-4

Physico-Chemical properties

IUPAC namebutanedioic acid
Molecular formulaC4H6O4
Molecular weight118.088
Melting point (ºC)
Boiling point (ºC)
Density (g/cm3)
Molar refractivity24.89
Topological polar surface area74.6

LogP and topological polar surface area (TPSA) values were estimated using Open Babel software.

The n-octanol/water partition coeficient (Kow) data is applied in toxicology and drug research. Kow values are used, to guess the environmental fate of persistent organic pollutants. High partition coefficients values, tend to accumulate in the fatty tissue of organisms. Molecules with a log(Kow) (or LogP) greater than 5 are considered to bioaccumulate.

TPSA values are the sum of the surface area over all polar atoms or molecules, mainly oxygen and nitrogen, also including hydrogen atoms.

In medicinal chemistry, TPSA is used to assess the ability of a drug to permeabilise cells.

For molecules to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (and act on receptors in the central nervous system), TPSA values below 90 Å2 are required. Thus, molecules with a polar surface area greater than 140 Å2 tend to be poorly permeable to cell membranes.