A summary of the most common chemical descriptors (InChI Key and SMILES codes) for (-)-Limonene are summarized together with 3D and 2D structures and relevant physico-chemical properties.

What is the (-)-Limonene?

The molecule (-)-Limonene presents a molecular formula of C10H16 and its IUPAC name is (4S)-1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene.

Limonene is a monoterpene, which is a type of terpene. Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants. Limonene is the main component of the oil extracted from citrus fruits. It has a strong citrus smell and is used as a flavoring and fragrance agent in food and beverages, as well as in household products..

Limonene is a volatile compound, meaning it easily evaporates at room temperature. It is a clear, colorless liquid with a lemon-like odor. Limonene is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol, ether, and other organic solvents..

The name "limonene" comes from from the Latin word for lemon, "limon". The -ene suffix is used to denote that the molecule is an alkene, a type of unsaturated hydrocarbon. Alkenes are characterized by the presence of a carbon-carbon double bond. The structure of limonene is shown below..

The -ene suffix is used to denote that the molecule is an alkene.

The carbon-carbon double bond in limonene is what gives the molecule its characteristic citrus smell. This double bond is also responsible for the molecule's reactivity. When limonene is exposed to air, it oxidizes and forms a variety of products, including the compound limonene oxide..

Limonene is produced naturally by a variety of plants, including citrus fruits, mint, and cannabis. It is also found in small amounts in a variety of essential oils. The largest producers of limonene are Brazil and Mexico..

Limonene is used as a flavoring and fragrance agent in food and beverages, as well as in household products. It is also used as a solvent for cleaning and degreasing. In addition, limonene is used in the manufacture of plastics, resins, and adhesives..

The health benefits of limonene are being studied extensively. Preliminary research suggests that limonene may have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties..

3D structure

Cartesian coordinates

Geometry of (-)-Limonene in x, y and z coordinates (Å units) to copy/paste elsewhere. Generated with Open Babel software.

2D drawing


(-)-Limonene XMGQYMWWDOXHJM-SNVBAGLBSA-N chemical compound 2D structure molecule svg


Molecule descriptors

IUPAC name(4S)-1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene
InChI codeInChI=1S/C10H16/c1-8(2)10-6-4-9(3)5-7-10/h4,10H,1,5-7H2,2-3H3/t10-/m1/s1

Other names (synonyms)

IUPAC nomenclature provides a standardized method for naming chemical compounds. Although this system is widely used in chemistry, many chemical compounds have also other names commonly used in different contexts. These synonyms can come from a variety of sources and are used for a variety of purposes.

One common source of synonyms for chemical compounds is the common or trivial names, assigned on the basis of appearance, properties, or origin of the molecule.

Another source of synonyms are historical or obsolete names employed in the past, however replaced nowadays by more modern or standardized names.

In addition to common and historical names, chemical compounds may also have synonyms that are specific to a particular field or industry.

  • ( inverted exclamation markA)-LIMONENE
  • (-)-(4S)-Limonene
  • (-)-(S)-Limonene
  • (-)-Limonene
  • (-)-p-Mentha-1,8-diene
  • (4S)-1-Methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohexene
  • (4S)-1-methyl-4-(1-methyl ethenyl) cyclohexene
  • (4S)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene
  • (4S)-1-methyl-4-isopropenylcyclohex-1-ene
  • (4S)-1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene
  • (4S)-4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene
  • (4S)-limonene
  • (S)-(-)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexene
  • (S)-(-)-Limonene
  • (S)-(-)-p-mentha-1,8-diene
  • (S)-(?)-Limonene
  • (S)-1-Methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene
  • (S)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexene
  • (S)-Limonene
  • (S)-p-Mentha-1,8-diene
  • 1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexene, (S)-
  • 4-Isopropenyl-1-methyl-1-cyclohexene #
  • 47MAJ1Y2NE
  • 4alphaH-p-mentha-1,8-diene
  • 5989-54-8
  • AI3-25390
  • AS-75559
  • C00521
  • CS-0014283
  • Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (4S)-
  • Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (S)-
  • DSSTox_CID_27078
  • DSSTox_GSID_47078
  • DSSTox_RID_82091
  • EC 227-815-6
  • F20308
  • HY-Z0478
  • L-Limonen
  • L0132
  • LMPR0102090002
  • Limonene, (-)-
  • Limonene, L-
  • MFCD00001558
  • NCGC00256073-01
  • P-Mentha-1,8-diene, (S)-(-)-
  • Q27089405
  • S-(-)-Limonene
  • W-110076
  • beta-Limonene
  • l-Limonene
  • laevo-limonene
  • s6055

Reference codes for other databases

There exist several different chemical codes commonly used in orded to identify molecules:
  • ZINC968226
  • CAS-5989-54-8
  • AKOS016844135
  • DTXSID6047078
  • CHEMBL236688
  • CHEBI:15383
  • Tox21_302295
  • EINECS 227-815-6

Physico-Chemical properties

IUPAC name(4S)-1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene
Molecular formulaC10H16
Molecular weight136.234
Melting point (ºC)
Boiling point (ºC)
Density (g/cm3)
Molar refractivity47.12
Topological polar surface area0.0

LogP and topological polar surface area (TPSA) values were estimated using Open Babel software.

The n-octanol/water partition coeficient (Kow) data is applied in toxicology and drug research. Kow values are used, to guess the environmental fate of persistent organic pollutants. High partition coefficients values, tend to accumulate in the fatty tissue of organisms. Molecules with a log(Kow) (or LogP) greater than 5 are considered to bioaccumulate.

TPSA values are the sum of the surface area over all polar atoms or molecules, mainly oxygen and nitrogen, also including hydrogen atoms.

In medicinal chemistry, TPSA is used to assess the ability of a drug to permeabilise cells.

For molecules to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (and act on receptors in the central nervous system), TPSA values below 90 Å2 are required. Thus, molecules with a polar surface area greater than 140 Å2 tend to be poorly permeable to cell membranes.